Child Benefit And Child Tax Credits After 16
If you have a child aged 16, check whether you are still receiving all the child benefit and child tax credits you expect to.
Child benefit and child tax credit both stop automatically on 31st August on or after the child’s 16th birthday, but where the child is in approved education or training, the parent who claims the child benefit is entitled to extend that claim until the child reaches their 20th birthday. ‘Approved education’ means at least 12 hours of supervised study per week, and the training can include an apprenticeship.
From September 2013 children who live in England (the rules are different in Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland) are required by law to remain in education or training until the end of the academic year in which they turn 17. So there are a lot of families out there with 16 years olds who are in approved education, but who have lost their child benefit.
If you are one of those parents, and you want to continue to receive the child benefit, you need to contact the Child Benefit office at HMRC, to inform them that your child is still in approved education or training.
Similar rules apply for child tax credit. In that case the claimant must contact the Tax Credit office.
Although child benefit and child tax credit are both administered by HMRC, you need to inform them twice, as one section of HMRC cannot pass the relevant information to another part!
High income child benefit charge
You may prefer not to receive the child benefit if you or your partner/spouse earns £50,000 or more. In that case all or part of the child benefit paid to your family is clawed-back through the operation of the high income child benefit charge (HICBC). HMRC has written to some of the parents who may be due to pay the HICBC, but not all, as they cannot correctly identify every person who may be liable to pay the charge. More details here: high income child benefit tax charge.
If you are the highest earner in a family that has claimed child benefit since 7 January 2013, and your total income is £50,000 or more, you need to declare that child benefit on your tax return form. If you don’t normally complete a self-assessment tax return form, you need to ask HMRC to set you up on the self-assessment tax return system. We can help you with that, but don’t delay, as if you fail to complete the tax return form on time there will be automatic penalties to pay.
Advantages of a private limited company
The main advantages of a private limited company or a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) is the protection from unlimited liability in the event you can’t pay your creditors, and the tax advantages of a private limited company.
We’re going to concentrate here on just the main tax advantages of a private limited company:
- Small Private Limited Companies (that’s with profits up to £300,000) pay corporation tax at 20% on all of their profits but individuals (sole traders and partners) pay tax at a range of rates from 0% to an effective top rate of 47% (including national insurance), on different slices of their income. So, it’s possible to pay less in tax by working through a private limited company, but it does depend on the level of your total income and hence the total tax you would pay as an individual.
- If you have £30,000 of profits liable to 40% tax and 2% NI (meaning your total income is about £72,000), the tax & NI saving can be £30,000 x 22% =£6,600 every year on this alone.
- Sole traders and partners pay Class 2 & Class 4 National Insurance on all of their profits, but Private Limited Companies only pay national insurance on salaries and benefits paid to the employees and directors. For someone earning £30,000 in a year, the amount of class 2 and Class 4 NI to be saved is just over £2,000.
- You can get tax advantages of a private limited company at very low profit levels as long as you do not pay all of the net profits out of the company as salary and benefits.
Is there a catch? Possibly:
- There are additional costs involved in running a private limited company such as more administration and higher accountancy fees. Although we only charge from £50pm for companies. Click here to see our fixed accountancy fees.
- With a Private Limited Company you have to consider how much money you want to take out of it and pay to yourself. But this flexibility can be used to your advantage.
- When you take money out it gets taxed on you personally. The two main ways to take money out are either as a dividend or as a salary and we’ll compare them more in another post, but we’re are going to assume dividends are being used as these are normally the most beneficial to small business owners.
- Assuming you can use dividends, you don’t pay any tax on these up to your 40% tax band of £41,450 but you pay 22.5% of the gross dividend above this amount (and 32.5% for those in the 45% rate tax band). If you add this to the 20% your company is paying, it then doesn’t look so great.
- However, if you are happy to only take income out up to the basic rate band threshold (£41,450) and leave the excess profits in the company you can pay far less tax. This means Private Limited Companies can work for people making good profits who want to reinvest the profits of their business above £41,450 into the business, or are possibly happy to leave the profits in their company until a later year when they are making less, and take the money out then.
- Property Developers are one trade where this is often the reason to leave the profits in the company, to buy the next property.
- If you want to get your hands on all the money your Limited Company makes straight away, the advantages of a private limited company aren’t that great.
How we can help you
We can calculate how much you could save by trading as a company. We offer a free incorporation service to our clients to help them benefit from the advantages of a private limited company. Our accounts and tax fees for companies start at just £50pcm. Use the buttons below for more details.
Parents on higher incomes who continued to receive Child Benefit after January 2013 have been reminded that they must register for Self Assessment by 5 October 2013 to avoid any penalties in relation to the High Income Child Benefit Charge.
The High Income Child Benefit Charge came into effect on 7 January 2013. You are liable to pay the tax charge if all of the following statements apply, or applied to you in the 2012/13 tax year:
- you have an individual income of over £50,000 a year, and
- either you or your partner received any Child Benefit payments after 7 January 2013, and
- your income for the tax year is higher than your partner’s. The partner with the higher income is liable to pay the charge if both partners have income over £50,000.
People who stopped Child Benefit payments before 7 January 2013 do not need to take any further action. To check whether the tax charge applies and to register, go to http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/childbenefitcharge.
If the charge does apply, then you must register for Self Assessment for the 2012/13 tax year by 5 October 2013, so that you can declare the Child Benefit you received, pay the tax charge on time and avoid any penalties.
You might be able to come out of Self Assessment in future years if you (or your partner if they are the Child Benefit recipient) choose to opt out of receiving Child Benefit and avoid incurring the tax charge. Go to http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/childbenefitcharge if you want to opt out.
More information on whether you need to register for Self Assessment can be found at: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/sa/need-tax-return.htm.
We can help you register for self assessment and our fees for completing your tax return start at £50pa plus VAT.